Why some people are gay?

There is a debate on Same-Sex marriage about weather it will affects kids health.Maybe you are also curious about the psychological and brain activity of homosexual.A research led by Gwang-Won Kim may satisfy your curiosity:

This study was performed to clarify the sexual orien-tation in a 19-year-old homosexual male and a 20-year-old homosexual female by using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with viewing male and female erotic nude pictures. The sex hor-mone levels of the homosexual male and female were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual males and females, respectively. In both homosexuals more significant brain activities were observed while view-ing the nude pictures of the same genetic sex than those of the opposite sex in the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, occipital cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, amygdala, midbrain, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus, globus pallidus, and putamen, which are known to be re-sponsive to sexual arousal. The homosexual male and female showed a tendency toward higher sexual arousal to the same genetic sex as comparison with the opposite sex.



Aristotle Refute the Harmonia Theory of the Soul?-No

There are different versions of the harmonia theory.In Aristotle’s On the Soul he considers and refutes two very narrow specifications: a harmonia is either a ratio of certain parts of the body or it’s a material composite, namely, the living body. Thus he is able to reject both of these without, thereby, undercutting his view that the soul is the form of a living body. The reason for the perplexity of Aristotle’s commentators is that it turns out that he’s committed to a version of the view he’s trying to refute. He rejects versions of the harmonia theory, but in the end the view he accepts is itself a harmonia account. By carefully distinguishing and arguing against the versions of the theory he finds objectionable, Aristotle is able to accept what the harmonia theory gets right namely, that the soul is the structure of the living body.

This conclusion is made by Douglas J Young, Department of Philosophy ,Lycoming College,USA. Through analyzing,he claimed that Aristotle’s hylomorphic account is, in fact, an instance of the harmonia theory.


Speed Of Light In Vacuum Is Not Actually Constant and the Reason

The paper, by a team of French physicists, finds that the speed of a photon in a vacuum fluctuates by 50 quintillionths of a second per square meter, the Christian Science Monitor reported. In addition, it posits that vacuums may actually have extremely short-lived particles in them that keep appearing and disappearing.These ideas may be testable, the physicists wrote. Ultra-fast lasers should be able to capture the changes in the speed of light they're proposing.

Why the speed of light is not a constantAn article <Why the Speed of Light Is Not a Constant>from Scientific Research Publishing sheds light on this problem:

A variable Speed of Light is supported by the fact that all direct measurements of that speed are basically flawed, because the “meter per second” is proportional to the Speed of Light. Since it is impossible to measure the Speed of Light directly, any variations of it can only be obtained in an indirect way. It will be shown that the recent Supernovae data are in very good agreement with a universe that is slowly expanding exponentially with a Speed of Light that falls over time, inversely proportionally to the expansion of the universe. It will be shown that the definition of the angular and standard impulse momentum has to be modified to get a consistent expansion of the universe. And that all clocks run inversely proportionally to the red-shift z + 1. General Relativity remains valid even with a varying Speed of Light and also Quantum Mechanics is unaffected.

You can get more details by reading the full artical.


Why some people may be depressed while some people are in positive state after traumatic event

Experiencing a traumatic event,negative people may feel the sky is falling, everywhere was in the gloom,and finally never recovered. Optimists may be sad for a period of time,then make adjustments, return to normal life sowly, sun still belongs to him.

The root of the gap between the two lies in posttraumatic growth and negative psychological adjustment after traumatic events can coexistwhich accounts for a major advantage decides your life after a traumatic event.

The conclusion is based on an experiment ,which evaluated current measures of grief to determine if such positive outcomes can be adequately assessed. Methods: The Texas Revised Inventory of Grief, Grief Experience Inventory, Bereavement Phenomenology Questionnaire, Core Bereavement Items, Continuing Bonds Scale, and Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist (currently the most common measures of grief).



An Analysis of The Affecting Factors of Civic Engagement and The Extent

Civic engagement also called civic participation. “It means working to make a difference in the civic life of our communities and developing the combination of knowledge, skills, values and motivation to make that difference. It means promoting the quality of life in a community, through both political and non-political.”According to Oryx Press. The importance of civic engagement goes without saying.

Whether civic engagement can really promot the quality of life,the quality of  civic engagement says. There are some factors may affect civic engagement,such as network size, voluntary association, and trust.A research led by Harris H. Kim claimed that ceteris paribus, network size and voluntary association have a strong causal impact on both outcome variables. Generalized trust is found to be a non-significant factor, however, while particularized trust has a contingent effect.

I think this study may be helpful for us to improve the quality of civic engagement and promote the development of the society and the country.

(source:SCIRP/Applied Sociology


Women are vocal?Gene works

Despite recent progress toward sexual equality, it's still a man's world in many ways. But numerous studies show that when it comes to language, girls start off with better skills than boys. Now, scientists studying a gene linked to the evolution of vocalizations and language have for the first time found clear sex differences in its activity in both rodents and humans, with the gene making more of its protein in girls. But some researchers caution against drawing too many conclusions about the gene's role in human and animal communication from this study.

Back in 2001, the world of language research was rocked by the discovery that a gene called FOXP2 appeared to be essential for the production of speech. Researchers cautioned that FOXP2 is probably only one of many genes involved in human communication, but later discoveries seemed to underscore its importance. For example, the human version of the protein produced by the gene differs by two amino acids from that of chimpanzees, and seems to have undergone natural selection since the human and chimp lineages split between 5 million and 7 million years ago. (Neandertals were found to have the same version as Homo sapiens, fueling speculation that our evolutionary cousins also had language). In the years since, FOXP2 has been implicated in the vocalizations of other animals, including mice, singing birds, and even bats.

During this same time period, a number of studies have confirmed past research suggesting that young girls learn language faster and earlier than boys, producing their first words and sentences sooner and accumulating larger vocabularies faster. But the reasons behind such findings are highly controversial because it is difficult to separate the effects of nature versus nurture, and the differences gradually disappear as children get older.

Wondering if FOXP2 played a role in these possible sex differences, a team led by psychologist J. Michael Bowers and neuroscientist Margaret McCarthy of the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore started off by looking at young rat pups, which emit cries in the ultrasonic range—frequencies higher than humans can hear—when separated from their mothers. The team acoustically recorded the cries over 5 minutes in groups of 4-day old male and female rats that had been separated from their mothers. Both male and female pups made hundreds of cries, but males emitted twice as many as females, the researchers report today in The Journal of Neuroscience. When the pups returned to their cages, mothers retrieved the males before the females, which additional experiments suggested was a response to the higher number of distress calls. The team then killed eight male and eight female 4-day-old pups and examined how much FOXP2 protein was in their brains. Male pups had up to twice as much of the protein in regions of the brain known to be involved in vocalization and other cognitive functions, such as the amygdala, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum, but showed no difference in brain areas not linked to vocalization, such as the hypothalamus. To confirm that FOXP2 drove the extra cries in males, the team next injected a strand of RNA designed to partly block the activity of the gene into the brains of young male rats. Those males emitted fewer cries, behaving more like the females.

Finally, the researchers conducted a small study on human children aged 4 to 5 years who had died in accidents less than 24 hours previously. In the brains of five boys and five girls, they analyzed the amount of FOXP2 protein in part of the left frontal cortex called Brodmann area 44, which has been linked to language in humans. In direct contrast to the rats, the researchers found 30% more FOXP2 protein in the brains of the girls as compared with the boys.

The team concludes that in both rats and humans, what it calls "the more communicative sex" has higher FOXP2 levels, as might be expected if the gene and its protein do play a major role in the ability to vocalize. "We are highlighting a previously unreported sex difference in a gene that is generating great excitement for its potential role in the evolution of language," McCarthy tells ScienceNOW.

Dwayne Hamson, a neuroendocrinologist at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, calls the paper "very exciting" and "convincing and compelling evidence that FOXP2 is a key molecule for communication in mammals." But Simon Fisher, a co-discoverer of the FOXP2 gene who is now at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, cautions against drawing "big conclusions about human sex differences" from such a small sample of human children, which focused on only one brain area and a narrow age range. And he argues against any notions that there are simple parallels between rat pup calls and human language. He says the cry of a human baby might be analogous to a rat pup vocalization, but that "speech and language … are so much more complex and interesting than simple innate vocalizations."


Maybe One Day iPad and Kindle Can Be Used During Takeoff and Landing

According to New York Times , a source said:FAA will issue new regulation, allowing iPad,Kindle and some other electronic reading devices use during takeoff and landing,but mobile phone is still forbidden.

Insiders indicate that FAA may face mounting pressure if allowing passengers use electronic equipment during takeoff and landing.But to forbidding the practice,they must offer scientific evidence to support this act.

Before that,FAA fixed that iPad,Kindle and the like electronic equipment have to be turned off, even the flight mode cannot be used during takeoff and landing.However , there is no real evidence prove that these electronic equipment may interference avionic device at present. Even more puzzling,FAA allows users to use electric razors and tape recorder when forbidding iPad,Kindle and the like.However,the emissive power of electric razors and tape recorder is stronger than  iPad and the like.


Indian Passes Stricter Law on Sexual Violence-A Thought on The Causing of Violence

Today,there is a good news: Indian parliament passes stricter law on sexual violence.In December 2012, India had occurred fatal gang rape of a young woman on a bus  which shocked the world. Later on,more dastardly gang rape occurs in this country.Even some female tourist in India from other country also became a victim.

Today,according to The Huffington Post,” Legislation makes crimes of stalking and sexual harassment and provides for the death penalty for fatal rape attacks”.

Sexual violence is one of the ACTS of violence.We may wonder what caused the violent?Family effects? Personal character?Or Aggressive Trait Responsible for Violence?Is violent movies a murderer? The last two factor,there is a controversy:

A research from SCIRP put forward that “violent movie could effectively elicit implicit aggression for adolescents who were highly aggressive, but not for nonaggressive adolescents.”


The Most Significant Factors Affecting the Ozone Concentrations in an Urban Environment

More and more people are moving to the city, especially in developing countries. Cities require and use large quantities of energy and materials, metabolizing them and generating large quantities of waste products and pollutants, resulting in unsustainable environments that adversely affect ecological integrity and diversity and human health and well-being.What is the main factors the affects the urban environment?A research lead by Athanasios Sfetsos(Institute of Nuclear Technology-Radiation Protection) made an investigation about this problem.And finally concluded that the most significant influences were the transported O3 and NOx concentrations from the industrial area in the northern parts of the city and the road traffic from the city centre.


Looking for job: maybe gender and race are not that important

At the job fairs, the recruitment often shows: Men only or women only.So we often complain about gender discrimination.A research<Workplace Identities of Women in the US Labor Market> from SCIRP claimes that:it is not so important!The following is the general ideas:

In this paper, I examine the effects of gender and race/ethnicity on American workers’ workplace identities. Literature on gender, work, and occupation suggests that gender and race are significant predictors of workers’ workplace identities. Literature also posits that self-perceived competency and reflected appraisals from others in workplaces also contribute considerably to workers’ workplace identities. However, there exists hardly any empirical study that explores the impacts of gender, race, workers’ self-perceived competency, and their reflected appraisals altogether on their workplace identities. That is what I accomplished in this study. Deriving the data from the National Study of Changing Workforce (NSCW: 2008) I ask: 1) Do women and men workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace identities; 2) Do non-white and white workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace identities; and 3) Do gender and race of the workers impact their workplace identities when self-perceived competency and reflected appraisals enter the equation? Analyses are based on quantitative methods. Results show that workers’ self-perceived competency and their reflected appraisals are more significant predictors of their workplace identities than gender or race.

You who are looking for jobdon’t be upset by gender or race any more.There is something more important!


Whether Dietary Polyphenolic Compounds Can Be Used As Biological Markers?

Many research pointed out that: dietary polyphenols compounds can play a role in antioxidant, scavenging free radicals, and controling the incidence of chronic diseases, protecting human DNA and mutation, inhibition of cancer.That’s why high intake of fruit and vegetables(Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols) is believed to be beneficial to human health. A research led by Walter Pinna (University of Sassari) puts forward a new question:whether high contents of natural polyphenols from the diet can induce pigment accumulation in lymph nodes?if so, whether polyphenolic compounds and derivates can be used as biological markers?The following is the general ideas:
A paired match approach was used to switch 20 pigs (range of initial body weight, BW: 113 - 121 kg) to two experimental diets, for four weeks: ten pigs (pair housed) were fed with an experimental acorn based diet (acorns: 50% in the diet, as fed; total polyphenols, 78.1 g TP/Kg DM in the diet; tannic acid equivalent, 25.8 g TAE/kg DM); the remainder ten, received a pelleted complete diet for finishers (0% acorns in the diet). Daily feed intake in the last two weeks of the experimental feeding was recorded per pair of pigs in both groups of animals, showing an average intake of 610 mg TAE/kg BW/d. At an average final BW of between 127 to 137 kg, all pigs were slaughtered and LNs from different anatomical regions of the carcass were removed and analysed. At gross inspection, LNs from both groups displayed different grades of intensity and diffusion of pigmentation: a partial and incidental pigmentation was randomly detected in renal or sub-iliac LNs in the control group; a constant and uniform pigmentation of LNs was observed in acorns fed pigs: a dark brown staining diffused to the whole LN associated with a brownish colour of the muscles was found systematically. At light microscope intracytoplasmic granules were found in macrophages and dendritic cells from both groups, but, at confocal laser analysis, an intense auto-fluorescence was observed in medial-iliac LNs from the carcasses of acorn-fed pigs (green emission). However, intracellular sources of blue and green fluorescence at different wavelengths, likely due to tryptophan, indoleamine and derivates were also found in medial-iliac and inguinal LNs from the control group. A dietary origin was attributed to the different discoloration of LNs between the carcasses of the two groups: such acquired pigmentation is relevant in the left sub-iliac LN, but the confocal laser microscopic test to elicit auto-fluorescence of polyphenolic compounds (biological markers) displayed a 76.9% specificity, despite a 100% of sensitivity for the univocal identification of the carcass from acorn-fed pigs. Cranial sternal LNs resulted to suit the sentinel role in the distinction of carcass from acorns fed pigs at confocal laser microscopic analysis.
This research is based on pigmentation,whether it is the same with human, needs further discuss.



Molecular markers in fisheries and aquaculture

Molecular markers has a wide range of applications.For example,it can be used to study the relationship between an inherited disease and its genetic cause, measure the genomic response to selection in livestock, genealogical DNA testing for genetic genealogy to determine genetic distance between individuals or populations,and even fisheries and aquaculture.
A research from scientific research publishing mainly discusses 5 applications of Molecular markers in fisheries and aquaculture: 1) Species Identification 2) Genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations 3) Comparison between wild and hatchery populations 4) Assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population 5) Propagation assisted rehabilitation programmes.The limitations are also discussed.
You can read more at< Molecular markersand their applications in fisheries and aquaculture>(The article can be download freely and safety).


A research from SCIRP find that wheat has allelopathic potential,and the application

Wheat is grown on more than 240,000,000 hectares (590,000,000 acres), larger than for any other crop. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. With rice, wheat is the world's most favored staple food. Wheat provides more nourishment for humans than any other food source.The importance of wheat not only embodied in the nutritive value.According to a research from SCIRP,when it is a plant,its allelopathic potential decides its eco-friendly trait for it can effectively reduce herbicide uses.
According to the World Health Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme report, in the world, there are  over 100 people herbicide poisoning, of which 10 million people died each year. In the developing world, the situation is much worse. Based on animal experiments, IARC confirmed that the widely use herbicide can be carcinogenic. It is estimated that the number of cancer patients with chemical herbicides accounted for about 20% of the total number of cancer patients.
Maybe we can make use of its allelopathic potential to implement “green food”,reducing the harm made by herbicide.


Research turn out that third-order safety culture associated with second-order safety performance model are the desired model

Safety culture is mainly applied to the high-tech, high-risk operation-oriented enterprises, in energy, power, chemical and other industries it is especially important. Studies on safety culture and safety performance have been increasing recently.A research from ScientificResearch Publishing conclude that third-order safety culture associated with second-order safety performance model turns out to be the desired model, where both the measured variables and latent variables have good reliability. The proposed model meets many criteria of the goodness of fit as well.The following it the stages of research:
We first carry out a thorough literature review and propose an integrated model of safety culture and safety per-formance with eight dimensions and four dimensions, respectively. We then state a series of hypotheses and test the proposed model on a sample of 370 valid data from three manufacturing companies in Taiwan.
Safety culture is a safe  engineering which benefit the the life and health of workers,and an important way to improve enterprise's safety management level and reach the company intrinsically safe.I hope this research can be help for futhur research.


Food and Nutrition Sciences-Is commercially bottled 100% fruit juice with the “no sugar added” label really no sugar?

The bottled fruit juice is often labeled no sugar added”,but does it really not contain higher sugar content than extracted juice of fresh fruit
A scientist published an article <Comparison of Sugar Content in Bottled 100% Fruit Juice versus Extracted Juiceof Fresh Fruit > in the Scientific Research Publishing.This artical made a study on this topic. The fruit juices that were tested included apple, grapefruit, orange, pineapple, pomegranate, red grape and white grape. All bottled juices and fresh fruits were purchased in Toledo, Ohio, USA during the winter of 2012. The fresh fruits were juiced and three samples were tested for sugar concentration using a Brix refractometer. The same testing protocol was also applied to the bottled 100% fruit juice. Application of the Mann-Whitney test on the experimental data demonstrated no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05).
Finally, the results suggested that the sugar content in the commercially bottled 100% fruit juice with the “no sugar added” label is an accurate representation of sugar content in the freshly-extracted juice of the corresponding fruit.


A new method for Seismic Site Characterization-Los Angeles‘shaken by biggest quake in years’

A 4.7-MAGNITUDE earthquake shook buildings in Los Angeles today, with US seismologists saying it was the strongest to hit the area since 2010, but there were no reports of damage or casualties.
The epicentre of the quake was some 19 kilometres southeast of Anza, California – about 100 miles southeast of Los Angeles – and was felt in San Diego, two hours’ drive down the coast from LA.
The quake shook buildings including one housing AFP’s offices in Hollywood, northwest of downtown. But there were no immediate reports of people being hurt or property being damaged, according to the Los Angeles Times or other media.
The USGS initially put the magnitude of the quake at 5.1, but later downgraded it to 4.7. It was still the strongest quake in the LA metropolis since since 2010.
It’s been three years since we had anything this size this close to Los Angeles,” said USGS seismologist Susan Hough.
Los Angeles is on the so-called “Ring of Fire”, which circles the Pacific and has produced a number of devastating earthquakes, including Japan’s March 2011 quake and tsunami, which killed thousands of people.

You may be doubt that what is the character of the earthquake location?Recommend an article from SCIRP An Improved Method for Seismic Site Characterization with Emphasis on Liquefaction Phenomena. In this paper, nonlinear geotechnical seismic hazard analysis considering the local site effects was executed and the soil lique-faction potential analysis has been evaluated for the Nemat Abad earth dam in Hamedan province of Iran because of its important socioeconomic interest and its location. Liquefaction susceptibility mapping is carried out using a decisional flow chart for evaluation of earthquake-induced effects, based on available data such as geological, groundwater depth, seismotectonic, sedimentary features, in situ, field and laboratory geotechnical parameters. A series model tests were conducted and then on base of the achieved data the idealized soil profile constructed. A C# GUI computer code “NLGSS_Shahri” was Generate, developed and then employed to evaluate the variation of shear modulus and damping ratio with shear strain amplitude to assess their effects on site response. To verify and validate the methodology, the obtained results of the generated code were compared to several known applicable procedures. It showed that computed output of this code has good and suitable agreement with other known applicable procedures.


Biomedical & Life Sciences -Depression profiles in skin disorders

Skin plays near perfect physiological protective functions in our life: such as the barrier function, sensory function, regulating body temperature, the absorption, secretion and excretion.Generally,  in the maintenance of the health of the body,it’s importance is irreplaceable. In addition,whether the skin is health, directly influences our psychosomatic conditions.A research from scientific research publishing concluded it,the following is the general:

Dermatological problems often present mood disorders, depression, anxiety disorders and psychological conditions relevant to psychosomatic conditions. Seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis, both characterized by chronic inflammation of skin, have been linked to emotional states. The aim of our study was to compare the two emotional profiles of patients with seborrheic dermatitis and psoriasis, in order to evaluate, quantitatively and qualitatively, the emotional picture in the two groups of disease. Methods: The study group included 33 patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis (21 males and 12 females, age range 18 - 67 years, mean age 39.85 ± 15.45 years) and 36 other patients affected by psoriasis (22 males and 14 females, age range 18 - 67 years, mean age 41.11 ± 13.72 years). The protocol included clinical assessment of the skin disorder and psychological assessment of emotional profile using the test Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale TAS-20. An exploratory factorial analysis was carried out for the POMS factor D (depression) to evaluate the composition of the items found in the two types of skin disorders. Results: The comparison between patients with psoriasis and patients with seborrheic dermatitis in relation to the TAS score and the different aspects of mood and showed a significant difference concerning factor D (depression) of the POMS. Conclusions: This study shows the correlation between depression and two skin disorders, seborrhoeic dermatitis and psoriasis. In both cases, the clinical picture falls under the definition of “depression due to a general medical condition”. However, qualitative differences make the psychologic frame of psoriatic patients close to that of “major depression”, while in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis the psychologic frame is more similar to that of “minor depression” (DSM IV).


Medicine & Healthcare- The Effects of Using Color Foods on Children-Immunity Properties and Liver

Synthetic color is often added to foods to replace natural color lost during processing.Yes,indeed it looks very attractive, however it also indeed do serious damage to children. How did it affect the health of children and how serious it is on earth?A study reveal the problem by experiment on rats.Let’s see the brief:
Synthetic color is added to foods to replace natural color lost during processing. It is causes health problems mainly in children that considered Avery venerable group. This study was carried out investigate the effect of using color foods (Color fruit juice for 6 - 12 hr. Tomato ketchup potato chips (TKPC) color sweet and color chocolate at low (15%) and high (30%)) concentration on serum biochemical, WBC (white blood cell)and histopathology of liver and kidney of rats for 13 week. The results indicated that no significant change in body weight gain, serum glucose, HDL and LDL cholesterol. TKPC (30%) showed that significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG). Low and high concentration of color chocolate and color sweet was exhibited significant increase of TG. The level of ALT and AST was significant increase of rat’s administration color fruit juice (for 12 hr.) and TKPC at 30%. High concentration of color foods and long time administration of color fruit juice showed significant increase in serum creatinine and albumin compared to control group. Both low and high consumed of color foods exhibited significant decrease in liver GSH. High concentration of color foods lead to increase number of WBC as the result to the response of the immune system to the inflammation. Color foods were reveled change in histological structure of liver and kidney. In conclusion, the use synthetic color in various foods has adverse effect on some of biochemical analysis; and the liver and kidney histopathological structure.


The view of open access journal’s responsibility editor on the publishing fee

The following is the view of one open  access journal’s chief editor:
As the responsibility editor or editorial board, or the reviewers, the publication fee has little relationship with us. We won’t get any money for employing one article paying the publishing fee.That is,when we dicide wethere this article can be employed has nothing with wether the article has paid.As the journal editors,we only care for the quality of the article ,and hope to improve the academic influence.The following is a word I wrote in my email special :” Please note that yours is a voluntary position and there will be no financial remuneration”.Thus, we are under no obligation to help publishers to publish some worthless rubbish.Of course,I am also against high layout fee.


The safety of RTE Pineapple chicken curry-is acceptable after storage at -18℃± 2℃for 6 months

A research from SCIRP about the safety of Pineapple chicken curry, share with you and ask for help:why pineapple chicken curry must be storage at -18℃± 2for 6 months?Do you really think it is acceptable?The following is the general:
 RTE Pineapple chicken curry, a traditional Kerala recipe, was prepared and standardized by using de-boned broiler meat chunks, pineapple and spices. The product having both meat and gravy (1:1.9) was packed in polyethylene pouches and stored at -18℃± 2for 6 months. During frozen storage, the free fatty acid (FFA) values were 0.28 - 0.46 (as percentage oleic acid) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were 1.68 - 2.45 (mg of malonaldehyde/Kg of sample) increased in both meat and gravy. Meat and gravy pH were in the range of 5.5 to 6. Marginal decrease in shear force values (43.4 - 39.6 N) were also observed. During storage the SPC was found to be decreasing over period of storage (100, 40, 20, <10 respectively). Psychrophiles were within acceptable limit and pathogens were absent. Microbiological data showed that the product was microbiologically safe. The sensory score indicated that the RTE pineapple chicken curry is acceptable after storage at -18℃± 2for 6 months.
If this is not detailed enough, please click< Physico-Chemical Changes in Ready to Eat Pineapple Chicken Curryduring Frozen Storage > for more.


Medicine & Healthcare-Protective Effect of Curcumin on Anxiety, Learning Behavior, Neuromuscular Activities, Brain Neurotransmitters and Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Cadmium Intoxicated Mice


Curcumin is a kind of yellow pigment, a extract from turmeric rhizome.In medical, anticancer is one of the main pharmacological activities of curcumin.Its capacity to inhibition of tumor has been multiple demonstrated in the animal tests.A new research states its benefits of other hand.The following is the general:
Cadmium (Cd) exposure can induce acute lethal health-related threats to humans since it has an exceptional ability to accumulate in living organisms and cause toxicological effects. Curcumin (Cur) on the other hand has a wide variety of biological activities and several animal studies have suggested for a potential therapeutic or preventive effects against several ailments and infections. To study the effect of Cur on the toxicity of Cd, sixty Swiss-Webster strain male mice were divided into 6 groups of ten each at random. Group-1 served as the na?ve control and received no treatment. Group-2, 3 and 4 were the experimental controls and were administered once a day with a single oral dose of 50% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), Cur (300 mg/kg) or Cd (100 mg/kg) respectively, for 2 weeks. Group-5 and 6 received Cur and Cd in combination once a day orally for 2 weeks except that Cur in a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg to group 5 and 6 respectively, was administered one hour before Cd (100 mg/kg) administration to both groups. After treatment period, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests and thereafter, the animals were sacrificed for the estimation of neurotransmitters like serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and it’s metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) as well as oxidative stress enzymes like lipid peroxides in the form of thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS) and total glutathione (GSH) in the forebrain tissue. Cd reduced significantly the body weight gain, the locomotor activity, anxiety behavior in the plus maze and the learning capability (cognitive effect) in the shuttle-box test. Biochemical analysis further revealed that Cd exposure significantly altered the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress enzymes. However, administration of Cur along with Cd had an ameliorating effect on all the behavioral and biochemical parameters studied herein and reduced the toxicity of Cd significantly and dose-dependently. Thus, Cur may be beneficial for anxiety, neuromuscular, and cognitive problems and protect from Cd intoxication.


Earth & Environmental Sciences - Vermicompost, the story of organic gold

Earthworm cast is the earthworm waste. From the component terms,it contains organic matter, humic acid, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It has  been shown to contain reduced levels of contaminants and a higher saturation of nutrients than do organic materials before vermicomposting. A research from scientificresearch publishing has state the worms composting technology, its importance, use and some salient results obtained in the globe so far,I think it may advance the course of vermicompost:
Earthworm has caught imagination of philosophers like Pascal and Thoreau. Yet its role in the nutrition of agricultural fields has attracted attention of researchers worldwide only in recent decades. Waste management is considered as an integral part of a sustainable society, thereby necessitating diversion of biodegradable fractions of the societal waste from landfill into alternative management processes such as vermicomposting. Earthworms excreta (vermicast) is a nutritive organic fertilizer rich in humus, NPK, micronutrients, beneficial soil microbes; nitrogen-fixing, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, actinomycets and growth hormones auxins, gibberlins & cytokinins. Both vermicompost & its body liquid (vermiwash) are proven as both growth promoters & protectors for crop plants. We discuss about the worms composting technology, its importance, use and some salient results obtained in the globe so far in this review update of vermicompost research.